Exploring the World of Sustainable Fabrics

Ever wondered which fabrics are kindest to our planet? Dive into our exploration of the world of sustainable fabrics, from their environmental footprints to their unique characteristics.

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Exploring the World of Sustainable Fabrics

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Green Hive is reader-supported. When you purchase through links on our site, we may earn an affiliate commission. To understand our thorough approach to rating brands and products, explore our comprehensive methodology.

Key takeaways

  • Sustainable fabrics have a reduced negative impact on the environment and society compared to conventional textiles.
  • Not all natural fibers are inherently sustainable.
  • There are several standards and certifications for ascertaining the sustainability credentials of fabrics.


The fashion industry, notorious for its fast-paced production and disposable trends, is experiencing a revolution where sustainability is no longer a mere buzzword but a fundamental ethos driving design and production choices. The quest for sustainable fabrics has become the cornerstone of this transformative movement, reshaping the way we think about clothing, textiles, and their relationship with the environment. 

The fashion industry has especially faced scrutiny in recent years as its environmental and social impacts have come under the microscope. The industry produces between 2 to 8 percent of global carbon emissions. From resource-intensive manufacturing processes to exploitative labor practices, the conventional fashion model has left a significant ecological and ethical footprint. The acceleration of fast fashion, characterized by rapidly changing trends and disposable garments, has only exacerbated these issues, contributing to the industry's reputation as one of the world's largest polluters.

What are sustainable fabrics?

Sustainable fabrics, also known as eco-friendly or green textiles, are materials used in clothing and textile production that are designed to have a reduced negative impact on the environment and society compared to conventional textiles. These fabrics are part of the broader sustainable fashion movement, which seeks to address the ecological and ethical challenges associated with the fashion industry. 

Characteristics of sustainable fabrics

Indeed, in a world where sustainability has become a trendy buzzword, it's crucial to have clear pointers to identify genuinely sustainable fabrics. Without these guidelines, it's all too easy for companies to engage in "greenwashing," a deceptive practice in which they make false or exaggerated claims about the eco-friendliness of their products. To help consumers and businesses make informed choices, here are some key pointers to identify sustainable fabrics:

Environmentally friendly sourcing

Sustainable fabrics are often sourced from materials that have a lower environmental footprint. This may include natural fibers grown with minimal chemical pesticides and synthetic materials produced through more sustainable manufacturing processes.

Resource efficiency

Sustainable fabrics aim to minimize resource use, such as water and energy, during production. This can involve more efficient farming or manufacturing practices. For example, sustainable fabric production often incorporates dyeing methods that use less water. Traditional dyeing processes can be water-intensive and lead to water pollution. Eco-friendly alternatives, such as digital printing or dyeing techniques that require fewer water resources are preferred.

Reduced chemical use

Eco-friendly textiles often use fewer or less harmful chemicals in their production, dyeing, and finishing processes, reducing the pollution of air and water. Some textile manufacturers employ closed-loop systems not only for water but also for chemicals used in dyeing and finishing. These systems recover and reuse chemicals, reducing waste and pollution.

Also, sustainable textile production aims to phase out or eliminate the use of harmful chemicals like azo dyes, heavy metals, and toxic flame retardants. This reduces the risk of these substances entering the environment.


Some sustainable fabrics are biodegradable, meaning they can break down naturally over time, reducing the burden on landfills. This quality is particularly important in the context of textile waste, as conventional textiles often end up in overflowing landfills, contributing to environmental problems. 

Recycled and upcycled materials 

Many sustainable fabrics incorporate recycled or upcycled materials, diverting waste from landfills and reducing the need for virgin resources. This approach aligns with the principles of the circular economy, where products and materials are kept in use for as long as possible, and waste is minimized. 

Fair labor practices

Sustainable fashion often emphasizes fair labor practices, ensuring that workers in the supply chain are paid fair wages and work in safe conditions. This ethical aspect of sustainability is a crucial element in addressing social responsibility within the fashion industry. It includes payment of fair wages to textile workers, ensuring safe working conditions, and local empowerment of textile workers.

Examples of sustainable fabric

If you’re ready to make more eco-friendly choices in terms of fabrics, there are several options available to you. Here, we explore some of the most popular examples of sustainable fabrics.

Organic cotton and recycled cotton

Organic cotton refers to cotton grown organically from non-genetically modified plants without synthetic and persistent agricultural chemicals like fertilizers and pesticides. It is a popular and durable fabric known for its reduced environmental impact and ethical production practices. It is produced in a way that prioritizes soil health and minimizes chemical use. 

In cultivating organic cotton, farmers employ natural methods to control pests and diseases, reducing the chemical load on ecosystems and preventing soil and water contamination. Conventional cotton production is generally water-intensive. It is a widely held notion among some experts that cotton is the largest user of water among all agricultural commodities. However, organic cotton farming often incorporates more efficient irrigation practices, crop rotation, and rain-fed cultivation to reduce water consumption.

It is also important to note that recycled cotton is considered sustainable, too. Recycled cotton is produced by reclaiming and repurposing post-consumer or post-industrial cotton waste, such as discarded clothing, fabric scraps, or manufacturing offcuts. Recycled cotton reduces the need for virgin cotton production, which requires significant water, energy, and agricultural inputs. It also helps prevent textile waste from contributing to landfill overflow, reducing the environmental burden associated with textile disposal.

Organic Hemp

Hemp is a versatile and sustainable fabric known for its numerous eco-friendly attributes. It has been used for thousands of years to create textiles, and it is gaining renewed attention in the modern world for its potential to reduce environmental impact. The cultivation of hemp for fiber was recorded in China as early as 2800 BCE. 

Hemp is more effective at blocking harmful UV rays than other materials, including cotton. Compared to cotton, hemp requires less pesticides or water in cultivation. It can thrive in a range of climates with minimal irrigation, reducing strain on water resources. Another upside of the use of hemp fabric is that the plant is fast-growing. The sustainability credential of hemp as a source of fiber is further boosted by the fact that it helps sequester carbon. In a world grappling with the challenges of climate change and rising carbon emissions, hemp's unique carbon-capturing capabilities make it a valuable player in the fight against global warming. A hectare of hemp sequesters 9 to 15 tonnes of CO2. This is similar to the amount sequestered by a young forest. The only difference is that it only takes five months to grow.


Bamboo is one of the most sustainable fabrics. Thus, any discussion about sustainable materials won’t be complete without bamboo. This eco-friendly fabric is derived from bamboo plants and has gained popularity in the textile industry. 

Bamboo is one of the fastest-growing plants on Earth, capable of growing several feet in a single day under the right conditions. This rapid growth makes it a highly renewable resource. Also, bamboo requires considerably less water compared to cotton, making it a more sustainable choice in regions with water scarcity issues. The plant’s natural resistance to pests and diseases reduces the need for chemical pesticides and herbicides. 

Bamboo plants can also act as carbon sinks. This means that as bamboo grows, it captures and stores significant amounts of carbon dioxide (CO2) from the atmosphere in its biomass. As a carbon-negative resource, bamboo helps mitigate climate change by sequestering more carbon than is released during its cultivation and processing. This carbon sequestration potential further underscores bamboo's status as an environmentally responsible choice for sustainable fabric production. 

Organic linen

Organic linen is a sustainable fabric known for its eco-friendly properties and natural, breathable texture. It is made from flax fibers cultivated using organic farming practices. Organic linen fabric is breathable, moisture-wicking, and thermoregulating, making it comfortable to wear in hot weather. It allows air to circulate and absorbs moisture, keeping the body cool and dry.

While organic linen is a truly sustainable fabric, people often raise eyebrows because it is relatively expensive. In fact, it is perhaps the most expensive natural fiber out there. The manufacturing process, including the harvesting and processing of the flax plant, takes a lot of effort, and the meticulous care required for organic farming contributes to higher production costs. 

However, the price is worth it from a sustainability point of view. When you invest in organic linen, you are not only purchasing a durable and versatile fabric but also supporting environmentally responsible farming practices, reducing chemical pollution, and promoting ethical labor conditions. The higher cost of organic linen reflects the true value of sustainability, and many consumers are willing to pay it to make a positive impact on the planet and support a more responsible and ethical textile industry.


Lyocell is a plant-based sustainable fabric. It is made from the cellulose fibers of wood pulp. Lyocell is known for its eco-friendly production process, comfort, and versatility. It is produced using a closed-loop manufacturing process, which means that the solvents and chemicals used in the production are captured and reused, minimizing waste and reducing environmental impact.

Lyocell can be blended with other fibers, such as organic cotton or recycled polyester, to create fabric blends with unique properties and increased sustainability. The material is biodegradable, meaning it can naturally break down at the end of its useful life, reducing the burden on landfills and minimizing environmental impact.


Wool is a natural fiber with several sustainability attributes, making it a good choice for eco-conscious consumers and the fashion industry. Like other natural fabrics, wool is derived naturally from the fleece of sheep, making it a renewable resource that can be shorn annually without harming the sheep. It also biodegrades, so there’s no need to worry about its environmental impact once it's reached the end of its useful life.

Wool is an excellent insulator that helps regulate body temperature. It provides warmth in cold weather and breathability in warm weather, contributing to comfort. In this regard, one may be tempted to call wool a smart fabric. 

For wool to be considered truly sustainable, the wool production process must place a strong emphasis on responsible and humane treatment of sheep. This includes providing them with proper nutrition, shelter, and healthcare. Sustainable sheep farming practices also consider the impact of grazing on natural ecosystems, aiming to minimize overgrazing and land degradation.

Are recycled polyester and nylon truly sustainable?

Recycled polyester and recycled nylon sometimes get touted as sustainable fabrics because they reduce the need for virgin polyester and nylon. However, this is a narrow view of sustainability. Sustainability is an all-encompassing concept that goes beyond just the reduction of raw material use. 

While recycled polyester does contribute to resource conservation and circularity, true sustainability also involves considering the entire lifecycle of a product, from production to disposal. It includes factors such as the energy and water efficiency of manufacturing processes, the impact of dyes and finishes, the ethical treatment of workers, and the end-of-life disposal or recycling options. 

A holistic approach to sustainability acknowledges the complex interplay of these elements and strives to minimize the overall environmental and social footprint of textile production, not merely focusing on one aspect in isolation. This broader perspective helps us make more informed choices as consumers and producers in the quest for a truly sustainable fashion industry.

Certification and standards for sustainable fabric

Having seen examples of sustainable fabrics, how do you identify them when buying? This is where certifications and standards come in. There are quite a few of them, and they are analyzed below.

Global Organic Textile Standard (GOTS)

The Global Organic Textile Standard (GOTS) is a globally recognized certification and labeling system for organic textiles and apparel. It is considered one of the most comprehensive and stringent standards for ensuring the environmental and social responsibility of textile products. 

GOTS requires that a textile product must contain a minimum of 70% organic fibers to be certified. These organic fibers must be grown without the use of synthetic pesticides, herbicides, or genetically modified organisms (GMOs). GOTS also mandates that any processing and manufacturing stages, including dyeing and printing, should meet strict organic standards. This includes the use of approved, eco-friendly chemicals and processes.

The standard prohibits the use of toxic chemicals, heavy metals, and other harmful substances in the production and finishing of textiles. It promotes the use of eco-friendly and non-toxic alternatives. GOTS ensures that workers involved in the production of organic textiles are treated fairly, paid living wages, and work in safe and humane conditions. Child labor and forced labor are strictly prohibited.


OEKO-TEX is a well-known certification and labeling system that assesses and verifies the safety of textiles and textile-related products. It focuses on ensuring that textiles do not contain harmful substances that could pose health risks to consumers or harm the environment. OEKO-TEX certifications are widely recognized and trusted by consumers and manufacturers alike.

The OEKO-TEX Made in Green certification, for instance, confirms that a textile product is free from harmful substances. It also provides information about the product's production process, including details about environmentally friendly and socially responsible manufacturing. Therefore, when consumers see the Made in Green label on a textile product, they are assured of its safety and know that it was produced sustainably.

Textile Exchange

Textile Exchange is a global nonprofit organization dedicated to accelerating sustainability in the textile industry. Founded in 2002, it plays a pivotal role in driving positive change in the industry by promoting sustainable and responsible practices across the entire textile supply chain. Its primary mission is to inspire and equip the global textile industry to integrate sustainable and responsible practices that minimize environmental and social impacts.

Textile Exchange works to expand the availability and adoption of sustainable fibers and materials, such as organic cotton and responsible wool, by providing guidance, standards, and market intelligence.


Bluesign is a highly respected sustainability standard and certification system in the textile industry. Bluesign ensures the highest level of consumer safety by considering the chemical composition of textile products, ensuring that they are healthy and safe. To become Bluesign certified, manufacturers must disclose all relevant information and ensure complete transparency and traceability of all processing steps, right down to the raw materials. 

The certification covers a wide range of textile products, including garments, fabrics, chemicals, dyes, and more, as well as various supply chain sites, such as production facilities and chemical suppliers. Bluesign focuses on eliminating harmful substances, reducing emissions, and optimizing resource consumption throughout the textile value chain. 

Limitations to the adoption of sustainable fabrics

Despite the growing interest in environmentally responsible fashion, the adoption of sustainable fabrics faces several limitations and challenges. 

Cost and availability

Sustainable fabrics often come with a higher price tag due to factors like organic farming practices, eco-friendly processing methods, and certifications. This can make sustainable fashion less affordable for some consumers. 

Additionally, sustainable fabrics may not be as readily available as conventional materials, limiting choices for designers and manufacturers. Additionally, their availability can vary by region.

Consumer awareness

Many consumers are still unaware of the environmental and social impacts of the fashion industry. Raising awareness and educating consumers about sustainable fabrics can be challenging. This lack of consumer awareness negatively affects demand. If there is limited consumer demand for sustainable fashion, businesses may hesitate to invest in sustainable fabric production. Creating a strong market demand for eco-friendly textiles is essential.

Supply chain complexity

Ensuring sustainability throughout the entire supply chain, from raw material sourcing to manufacturing and distribution, can be complex and require significant changes in business practices.

Standardization and certification

The multitude of sustainability standards and certifications can be confusing for both consumers and businesses. Some standards may lack universal recognition, making it challenging to assess a product's sustainability.

Resistance to change

Traditional fashion industry practices and business models are deeply entrenched. Some companies may be resistant to adopting sustainable practices due to concerns about cost, profitability, or resistance from stakeholders. For instance, sustainable fabric production may require different infrastructure and technology, which can be costly to implement. This further makes it harder for businesses to make this important switch.


Which fabric has the lowest environmental footprint?

Hemp fabric has the lowest environmental impact. This is particularly true if the hemp fabric is organically sourced and sustainably produced. Organic hemp consumes minimal water for cultivation and sequesters carbon. In addition, it is biodegradable and doesn’t add to microplastic pollution like most synthetic fabrics.

Is 100% cotton sustainable?

Yes, 100% cotton can be sustainable if it is organic cotton. Organic cotton is grown without the use of synthetic pesticides or genetically modified organisms (GMOs). Organic farming practices for cotton often emphasize soil health, reduced water usage, and ethical labor practices. These sustainable practices can contribute to a lower environmental impact compared to conventional cotton farming, making organic cotton a more eco-friendly choice.

However, it's essential to consider the entire lifecycle of the product and ensure that other aspects of production, such as dyeing and finishing processes, also align with sustainability principles to fully assess the sustainability of cotton-based products.

What is a sustainable alternative to cotton?

Organic cotton, hemp, and bamboo fabrics stand as sustainable alternatives to conventional cotton. They prioritize eco-friendly cultivation and production methods, with organic cotton avoiding synthetic pesticides and GMOs, hemp requiring fewer chemicals and less water, and bamboo's rapid growth reducing environmental impact. These materials promote soil and water conservation, support ethical labor practices, and offer consumers more eco-conscious choices in the fashion industry, aligning with sustainability and responsible consumption goals.

Is bamboo a sustainable fabric?

Bamboo is often considered a sustainable fabric due to its rapid growth, minimal chemical use, low water requirements, soil health benefits, efficient land use, and carbon sequestration potential. It is also naturally antibacterial and moisture-wicking, making it a good choice for activewear and bedding. Pure organic bamboo fabrics take approximately six months to biodegrade naturally.

Is silk a sustainable fabric?

No, silk isn't typically considered a sustainable fabric. Although it is a natural fiber produced by silkworms, several factors contribute to its less-than-optimal sustainability profile. Silk production involves resource-intensive practices, such as the consumption of mulberry leaves by silkworms, which can strain land and resources. More than 180kg of fresh mulberry leaves are needed to make 1 kg of dry raw silk.

Additionally, the energy-intensive sericulture process and the use of chemicals like pesticides and dyes can have adverse environmental impacts. Ethical concerns related to animal welfare during cocoon harvesting also arise. While some efforts, like peace silk or eco-friendly production methods, aim to mitigate these issues, silk often falls short of the sustainability standards associated with alternative fabrics like organic cotton, hemp, 

Is cashmere a sustainable fabric?

No, cashmere is not a sustainable fabric despite having a natural source and being biodegradable. It is made from the undercoat of cashmere goats, which are raised in large herds in countries like Mongolia, China, and Iran. 

Cashmere wool comes from cashmere goats, primarily bred in regions like Mongolia and China. Raising these goats and harvesting their wool requires a significant amount of land, water, and food resources, which can lead to overgrazing and land degradation. In some cases, cashmere goat herding practices may raise concerns about animal welfare, particularly in regions where goats are raised intensively and subjected to harsh conditions.

Are there biodegradable fabrics?

Yes, there are several biodegradable fabrics, including hemp, organic cotton, linen, silk, wool, and cashmere. These fabrics naturally break down over time, reducing the environmental impact by minimizing textile waste and the burden on landfills. However, it's important to consider other sustainability factors like resource use, production methods, and ethical practices when assessing the overall eco-friendliness of a fabric.

Can bamboo replace cotton?

Bamboo can potentially replace cotton. It is a fast-growing plant that requires less water and land to grow than cotton. It is also naturally antibacterial and moisture-wicking, making it a good choice for activewear and bedding. However, there are some challenges to replacing cotton with bamboo. Bamboo fabric is not as widely available as cotton fabric, and it can be more expensive. 


The significance of sustainable fabrics extends far beyond clichés. These fabrics encompass a diverse array of eco-friendly materials, from organic cotton and hemp to bamboo and organic linen, all united by a shared purpose: to reduce the fashion industry's environmental footprint. 

What truly defines a fabric as sustainable, however, goes beyond its composition. It embraces ethical practices, responsible resource management, and an unwavering commitment to minimizing harm. As we navigate the intricate web of fashion choices, selecting sustainable fabrics becomes an act of responsibility, a tribute to the preservation of our planet's resources, and a pledge to prioritize both environmental and social welfare. It's a choice that benefits not only the Earth but also future generations. So, the next time you shop for clothing or textiles, consider the impact of your choices and opt for sustainability.


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Ibrahim Okunade

Dedicated to promoting environmental consciousness and ecological harmony. I write to help others embrace sustainable living.

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